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"There are several hundred CMS and KMS provider for SMEs in Europe. Most of them are currently not able to leverage semantics-based technology for use in their systems. This has negative impact downstream, on thousands of end user organisations which are served by these providers. Ultimately, tens or hundreds of thousands of knowledge workers in the downstream organisations are prevented from leveraging their skills"

Getting Semantics into CMS

The technology base of many CMS providers is the LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, mySQL, php). The LAMP stack is not well suited to using semantic web technologies such as RDF or OWL.  Conversely, it is still quite hard to make Semantic Web technologies work in operational content management systems. However, many new web applications are making use of structuring mechanisms such as RDFa and this is a first step towards getting semantics into CMS.

IKS Technology Stack

IKS started with a working hypothesis which we call the Interactive Knowledge Stack. Its main additions to a normal LAMP are conceptual layers for knowledge representation and for user interaction.

IKS layers: behavioural/interface, descriptional/middleware, distribution & storage/repository, Simplified view of the LAMP, Java and IKS Stacks put next to each other.

In 2010 we simplified the picture by pairwise, collapsing adjacent layers so that we ended up with just 4 layers. 


Create - Query - Consume - Interact

Take the simplified four layers of the stack and think what functionality you would expect it to provide for you. The minimum would be: I want to create new semantic content; I want to query existing semantic content, I need to consume (or present) semantic content, and finally, I want to actually interact with such content, e.g. zoom into it, explore related content, request further action from the owner of the content, etc. Creating an e-business application with a product catalogue would fit well in such a scenario.

Below, we have another example of the same overall structure: it is the specification of a web-based tool to support the management of project meetings, where you start with an agenda, later run the actual meeting, and finally publish the minutes of it - all this can be done in one interactive application that generates semantically annotated content.